You are probably familiar with the f(x) notation for a function. Essentially, a function is a machine where you substitute values in for the variable, x, and the machine delivers some value. Of course, the formal definition is a bit more complex than the latter, but for GMAT purposes, this is enough.
Lets look at the problem #x can be taken to be f(x) = x² + 4. So that means #p = p(x) = p² + 4 and #(p + 3) = (p + 3)² + 4. Now, lets set the last two equal to each other:
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