If w is 40 percent less than x, x is 40 percent less than y, and z is 46 percent less than y, then z is greater than w by what percent of w?

A. 4% B. 18% C. 36% D. 40% E. 50%

(E) In order to answer this question, you need to get the value of all the variables in terms of y: z = 0.54y, x = 0.6y, and w = 0.6x = 0.6(0.6y) = 0.36y.

Now, compare the two. To find a percent difference between two numbers or variables, you take one and subtract it from the second, and then divide by the second. The amount being subtracted is usually the one following "than" in the question. Therefore: (z – w) / w = (0.54y – 0.36y) / 0.36y = 0.18y / 0.36y = 0.5.

z is 50% larger than w. -------------

It would be nice to see the problem worked out with smart values..

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